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City University Research Journal (HEC recognized), a double blinded peer reviewed bi-annual academic journal serves as a forum for introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research and the critique of existing research.
One of the objectives of City University of Science and Information Technology (CUSIT), Peshawar is to provide quality education and to improve the quality of Academic Research. CURJ is vigorously pursuing to achieve this objective by inviting research articles from leading academic authorities, early-career academics and research students at national and international levels.
CURJ welcomes contributions from the area of Business and Management. Within this orientation the journal provides a focus for theoretical, applied and methodological work with strong emphasis on realistic analysis, the development of critical perspective, the provision and use of empirical evidence.
CURJ is an open access journal that publishes high quality solicited and unsolicited research papers, which should describe new and carefully confirmed findings.
I am honored with an opportunity and a responsibility to be Chief Editor of CURJ, which has a very rich editorial board having national and international members of high calibre and experienced scholars in the relevant field.
The encouragement and co-operation extended by Mr. Mohammad Sabur Sethi, President CUSIT, Prof. Dr. Kahif Ur Rehman, Vice Chancellor (Patron of CURJ) CUSIT and other team members made it possible to publish this seventh issue of the journal without any financial and technical barriers on authors.
I hope that by the grace of Almighty Allah, the CURJ will gain a glorious position among the existing research journals of Business and Management Sciences.
The detailed instructions for authors are reproduced on the last page of this journal.

Dr. Muhammad Zahid

Editor, CURJ,
City University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan